Barbados Island by MSN Maps

Barbados - Coat of Arms

Barbados by Wikipedia


Informacje ogólne: po polsku, po angielsku

Wiki - wolna encyklopedia internetowa (pol.)

Informacje CIA (po ang.)

Bogata galeria zdjęć.

Oficjalna strona: encyklopedia - Barbados.

Link do ciekawego opisu i galerii (ang.)


Barbados map from Caribbean-on-line

Bridgetown map from Caribbean-on-line

Barbados Island


BARBADOS, państwo w Ameryce Środk., w Indiach Zachodnich.


Informacje ogólne

Stolica: Bridgetown

Powierzchnia: 431 km2

Ludność: 265 tys. mieszk. (1996)

Język urzędowy: angielski

Jednostka monetarna: dolar Barbadosu

Święto narodowe: 30 listopada (rocznica uzyskania niepodległości 1966)


BARBADOS. WARUNKI NATURALNE. Barbados zajmuje wyspę o tej samej nazwie na O. Atlantyckim, wysuniętą najdalej na wsch. w archipelagu Małych Antyli. Wyspa zbud. gł. z wapieni pochodzenia koralowego, pagórkowata (wys. do 336 m), otoczona rafami koralowymi; klimat podrównikowy wilgotny; w lecie cyklony; brak wyraźnej powierzchniowej sieci rzecznej; rozwinięte zjawiska krasowe.

LUDNOŚĆ. Murzyni stanowią 90% mieszk., Metysi 3%, biali 3%; protestanci — 90%.

USTRÓJ POLITYCZNY. Formalnie monarchia konstytucyjna, czł. bryt. Wspólnoty Narodów; konstytucja z 1966; głową państwa jest monarcha bryt., reprezentowany przez mianowanego przez siebie gubernatora generalnego; władza ustawodawcza należy do 2-izbowego parlamentu o kadencji 5-letniej: Izba Zgromadzenia wybierana w wyborach powszechnych, Senat mianowany przez gubernatora; władzę wykonawczą sprawuje rząd z premierem na czele, powoływany przez gubernatora spośród czł. Izby Zgromadzenia i odpowiedzialny przed parlamentem


ACEROLA, malpigia, wiśnia z Barbados, Malpighia glabra (M. punicifolia), niski, wiecznie zielony krzew Ameryki Środk., uprawiany tam na niewielką skalę ze względu na małe, kwaskowate owoce, bogate w wit. C (ok. 3000 mg w 100 g).

Encyclopedia Brytanica


independent island nation in the West Indies, the most easterly of the Caribbean Islands. It is situated about 100 miles (160 km) east of the Windward Islands and about 270 miles (430 km) northeast of Venezuela, and covers an area of 166 square miles (430 square km). The capital is Bridgetown, the only seaport. Triangular in shape, Barbados extends at its maximum about 21 miles (34 km) from northwest to southeast and about 14 miles (23 km) from east to west. The population in 1990 was estimated at 255,000.

For information about regional aspects of Barbados, see West Indies: Barbados.

 island nation in the Caribbean, situated about 100 miles (160 kilometres) east of the Windward Islands. Roughly triangular in shape, it measures 21 miles from northwest to southeast and about 14 miles from east to west, with a total area of 166 square miles (430 square kilometres). Its capital is Bridgetown, the only seaport.

Barbados is not part of the Lesser Antilles, although it is sometimes grouped with this archipelago. The island is of different geologic formation; it is less mountainous and has less variety in plant and animal life. The geographic position of Barbados has profoundly influenced the island's history, culture, and aspects of its economic life. In the era of sailing ships, access to the island was difficult because of the prevailing winds from the northeast. Outward-bound ships from Europe had to gain the island while heading west, for it was difficult for them to turn and reach its shores by sailing eastward against the wind.

The island remained a British possession without interruption from its settlement in the 17th century to 1966, when it attained independence. As the first Caribbean landfall from Europe, Barbados has functioned since the late 17th century as a major link between western Europe (mainly Britain), eastern Caribbean territories, and parts of the South American mainland. Because of its long association with Britain, the culture of Barbados is probably more British than that of any other Caribbean island. Since independence, however, cultural nationalism and regional awareness have tended to increase.

Physical and human geography

The economy

Finance and trade

Barbados' banking system consists of commercial banks (mostly branches of international banks), a central bank, and various development-oriented financial institutions. A small securities exchange, trading in the stock of locally owned companies, has operated since 1987. During the 1980s there was considerable growth in the offshore financial sector.

The chief exports include electrical components, processed foods, clothing, furniture, and chemicals. Principal imports include food products, machinery, and fuels. Barbados' main trading partners are the United States, the United Kingdom, and Trinidad and Tobago and other members of Caricom (Caribbean Community and Common Market).


The island has a network of good roads. Bridgetown has a deepwater harbour, and several international airlines and British West Indian Airways offer regular services to Grantley Adams International Airport near the southern coast.

The rocks underlying Barbados consist of sedimentary deposits, including thick shales, clays, sands, and conglomerates, laid down approximately 70 million years ago. Above these rocks are chalky deposits, which were capped with coral before the island rose to the surface. A layer of coral up to 300 feet (90 metres) thick covers the island, except in the northeast physiographic region known as the Scotland District, covering 15 percent of the area, where erosion has removed the coral cover. The government has adopted a conservation plan to prevent further erosion.

Relief, drainage, and soils

Mount Hillaby, the highest point in Barbados, rises to 1,115 feet (340 metres) in the north central part of the island. To the west the land drops down to the sea in a series of terraces. East from Mount Hillaby, the land declines sharply to the rugged upland of the Scotland District. Southward, the highlands descend steeply to the broad St. George Valley; between the valley and the sea the land rises to 400 feet to form Christ Church Ridge. Coral reefs surround most of the island.

There are no rivers or lakes and only a few streams, springs, and ponds. Rainwater percolates quickly through the underlying coralline limestone cap, draining into underground streams that discharge off the leeward coast. These streams are the main source of the domestic water supply.

Barbados has mainly residual soils. They are clayey and rich in lime and phosphates. Soil type varies with altitude; thin black soils occur on the coastal plains, and more-fertile yellow-brown or red soils are usually found in the highest parts of the coral limestone.

Barbados is densely populated. More than one-third of the population is concentrated in Bridgetown and the surrounding area. Most of the farmland is owned by large landowners or corporations. As a result, “tenantries” are as common as villages. Tenantries are clusters of wooden houses—locally known as chattel houses—located on the borders of the large estates; they are usually owned by the occupants but stand on rented ground from which they may easily be removed. Most of them have electricity and running water. The largest town is Bridgetown. In its commercial and administrative centre, multistory buildings are altering the features of the 19th-century town. Apart from Bridgetown, Oistins, Holetown, and Speightstown are the largest towns.

The people

Blacks make up more than 90 percent of the population; the remainder consists of whites, persons of mixed African and European descent, and East Indians. English is the official language, and a nonstandard English called Bajan is spoken. The Anglican church has the largest congregation. About a quarter of the population belongs to other Protestant churches, and there is a small number of Roman Catholics.

Since the 1950s the rate of population growth has been slowed by a successful family-planning program and by emigration, now mostly to other parts of the Caribbean and to North America. In the same period the death and infant mortality rates declined sharply, and life expectancy rose above 70 years.



Courteen, Sir William

born 1572, London, Eng.
died , May/June 1636, London

Courteen also spelled Courten, or Curteen
English merchant and shipowner noted especially for his enterprises in the West Indies and the East Indies.

The son of a Protestant refugee who had come to London in 1568, Courteen from an early age acted as the agent in Haarlem, Neth., for his father's silk and linen business. He became senior partner in the merchant house of Courteen and Moncy in 1606. His trade with Europe, Guinea, and the West Indies brought him great wealth, and in 1622 he was knighted. One of his vessels discovered an island which he named Barbados and to which in 1625 he sent colonists. But James Hay, 1st earl of Carlisle, claiming a lease of all Caribbean islands under deeds of 1627 and 1628, seized Barbados in 1629. This entailed heavy losses on Courteen, as did large loans made to Kings James I and Charles I. He also suffered trading failures in the East Indies and long, unsuccessful litigation over the estate with one of his partners. Though still wealthy, he never recovered his former prominence.